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1.
婴幼儿番茄鱼泥罐头工艺的优化研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
采用了感官评定和正交实验法,对婴幼儿番茄鱼泥罐头的工艺和配方进行了优化。通过反复实验,确定婴幼儿番茄鱼泥罐头的最佳配方为:30%番茄、14%蛋黄、6%奶粉。对按该配方生产的产品进行理化及微生物检测,结果表明,该产品具有鱼肉与番茄的独特滋味,酱体橙红色,呈半固态状,料质均匀,粘稠适中,乳化效果好,实为目前婴幼儿的最佳营养食品。  相似文献   
2.
幼儿营养粉的制备加工   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
根据最新国家标准GB10769-1997,应用线性规划法对以谷类、乳粉为主要原料的婴幼儿断奶期辅助食品进行配方设计与加工技术的探索,制备出了婴幼儿营养初级食品,尽可能使其营养成分符合国标要求,必需氨基酸配比合理,并添加了重要的生物活性物质。  相似文献   
3.
This paper examines driver characteristics in crashes where child and teenage motor vehicle crash victims were injured, in particular factors that determine whether or not the victim was restrained. Analyzing the data on children and teenagers who are injured revealed that the presence of a second adult in a vehicle increased the likelihood that these passengers were unrestrained. Other findings are more predictable: victim restraint use generally mirrored driver restraint use; a male driver, a young driver, a drinking driver, a speeding or reckless driver, an unlicenced or suspended driver, and a night-time trip each independently raised the odds that child and teenage passengers were not restrained when they were injured.  相似文献   
4.
In order to assess the relationship of the risk of injury requiring hospital attendance in children riding bicycles to sociodemographic factors and to measures of exposure, a population-based case-control study is being undertaken in a large area of suburban Melbourne, Australia. Particular attention is given to the measurement of individual exposure in several dimensions. Analysis of interim data from 109 cases and 118 controls shows that 51% of injuries occurred while the child was playing rather than making a trip on the bicycle and only 22% involved another vehicle. Boys used bicycles more commonly than girls but there was minimal evidence of an increased risk of injury in boys, adjusting for exposure. There was no evidence for an age trend in injury risk, but children from families in the lowest income category were at significantly increased risk. Exposure measures showed complex patterns of association with injury risk. Estimated time spent riding was more closely associated with risk than distance travelled, with an odds ratio of 2.2 (95% confidence interval 1.1–4.2) for children riding for more than 3 hours per week compared to children riding less than 1 hour. Riding more than 5 km on the sidewalk was also associated with increased risk (odds ratio 3.1, 95% CI 1.1–8.5). The elevated risk associated with sidewalk riding may be due to difficulties in negotiating uneven surfaces. The case-control study provides an ideal design for this type of investigation but valid and reliable measurement of exposure is difficult.  相似文献   
5.
Hwang I  Cha A  Lee H  Yoon H  Yoon T  Cho B  Lee S  Park Y 《Lipids》2007,42(4):345-349
Atopy is a growing problem for Korean children. Since eicosapentaenoic acid is a precursor of less active inflammatory eicosanoids, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may have a protective effect on atopy. This study was undertaken to determine whether n-3 PUFA in red blood cells (RBC) is lower in atopic than in non-atopic preschoolers. Three hundred and eight Korean children aged 4–6 years were enrolled. Total RBC fatty acid composition was measured by gas chromatography. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, or asthma was 29%. Total RBC n-3 PUFA were lower in preschoolers with atopy than controls (9.8 ± 1.2 vs. 11.4 ± 1.6%; P < 0.05), while n-6 PUFA (33.0 ± 1.4 vs. 32.2 ± 1.0%; P < 0.05) and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (3.4 ± 0.6 vs. 2.8 ± 0.5; P < 0.05) were greater. The following factors were also associated with an increase in atopy: higher saturated fatty acids (39.6 ± 1.4 vs. 40.6 ± 1.9; P < 0.05) and arachidonic acid (15.3 ± 1.6 vs. 16.0 ± 2.9; P < 0.05), and lower total PUFA (43.8 ± 0.7 vs. 42.8 ± 1.4; P < 0.05) and omega-3 index (EPA + DHA; 9.1 ± 0.8 vs. 7.8 ± 0.5; P < 0.05) in RBC. Maternal history of atopy was a significant (P < 0.05) risk factor, while lactation was not. The results suggest that a reduced content of n-3 PUFA in the RBC membrane could play a role in early children atopy.  相似文献   
6.
Particulate air pollution is significantly elevated during the winter in Christchurch, New Zealand, largely attributable to use of wood burners for domestic home heating, topography, and meteorological conditions. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a key component of airborne particulate matter (PM) and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) has previously been used to assess exposure of people to PAHs. We examined urinary 1-OHP in Christchurch male non-smoking schoolchildren (12-18 yr) on two occasions after high pollution events (48 and 72 microg PM(10)/m(3) 24-h average) and two occasions during periods of low pollution (19 and 12 microg PM(10)/m(3)). Concentrations of urinary 1-OHP were significantly elevated in the students during high pollution events (median (mean+/-SD) 0.043 (0.051+/-0.032) and 0.042 (0.060+/-0.092) micromol OHP/mol creatinine respectively) compared with low pollution periods (median (mean+/-SD) 0.019 (0.026+/-0.032) and 0.025 (0.028+/-0.018) micromol/mol creatinine respectively). The observed 1-OHP concentrations are at the lower end of those determined in children and non-occupationally exposed adults in international studies and suggest a generally low exposure to PAHs. The increased urinary 1-OHP concentrations following nights of elevated particulate concentrations in ambient air suggest increased exposure to ambient air pollution during winter time, and could potentially be used as a biomarker of exposure in this population.  相似文献   
7.
Dietary ingestion is a significant pathway of human exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. This study aims to determine the occurrence of OP pesticide in the diet of young children in Japan and estimate their exposure. The study was conducted by analyzing duplicate diet samples collected from 33 children aged 3 to 6 years old in Tokyo and the nearby area in Japan. Seven OP pesticides that are mainly used for agriculture in Japan (fenitrothion, trichlorfon, dichlorvos, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, malathion, and EPN) were targeted for analysis. As a result of the study, fenitrothion was frequently found in the week's diet (21%) of children, followed by diazinon (14%), chlorpyrifos (11%), and malathion (4%); the daily intake of pesticides was also estimated to range from < 110 to 180 ng/day, < 70 to 800 ng/day, < 70 to 100 ng/day, and < or = 110 ng/day, respectively. Daily intake of diazinon per kg body weight was relatively higher than other target pesticides and the maximum value was 50 times below the acceptable daily intake set by Japan Ministry of Health and Labor Welfare. Occurrence of malathion in the diet of children in the present study was lower than that reported in 1980s, supposed due to the decreasing level of malathion in wheat and wheat products. Frequent detection of fenitrothion in diet is a significant trend observed in Japan, and is considered due to the high and widespread usage of the pesticide inside of the country.  相似文献   
8.
Many researches have shown that the particulate matter (PM) of air pollution could affect the pulmonary functions, especially for susceptible groups such as asthmatic children, where PM might decrease the lung function to different extents. To assess the effects of PM on health, most studies use data from ambient air monitoring sites to represent personal exposure levels. However, the data gathered from these fixed sites might introduce certain statistical uncertainties. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the effects of various size ranges of PM on peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of asthmatic children, and to compare the model performance of using different PM measurements (personal exposures versus fixed-site monitoring) in evaluation. Thirty asthmatic children, aged 6 to 12 years, who live near the fixed monitoring site in Sin-Chung City, Taipei County, Taiwan, were recruited for the study. Personal exposures to PM(1), PM(2.5), and PM(10) were measured continuously using a portable particle monitor (GRIMM Mode 1.108, Germany). In addition, an activity diary and questionnaires were used to investigate possible confounding factors in their home environments. The peak expiratory flow rate of each participant was monitored daily in the morning and in the evening for two weeks. Results showed several trends, although not necessarily statistically significant, between personal PM exposures and PEFR measurements in asthmatic children. In general, notable findings tend to implicate that not only fine particles (PM(2.5)) but also coarse particles (PM(2.5-10)) are likely to contribute to the exacerbation of asthmatic conditions. Stronger lagged effect and cumulative effect of PM on the decrements in morning PEFR were also found in the study. Finally, results of linear mixed-effect model analysis suggested that personal PM data was more suitable for the assessment of change in children's PEFR than ambient monitoring data.  相似文献   
9.
Studies on traffic accidents among underage users of motorcycles are seldom seen in literature. This study was done in Yamunanagar, India where boys as young as 8 years ride motorcycles. It attempts to find out the behavioural and non-behavioural factors leading to motorcycle use and the predisposition to accidents among male school children aged between 10 and 16 years. A questionnaire was used to evaluate those factors among 1760 subjects in 38 schools. Fifteen percent of subjects had had an accident while riding motorcycle. Most of the behavioural and all the non-behavioural factors have a statistically significant influence on accident proneness. Aggressive behaviour and previous encounter with the police are the two strong predictors of accidents (p<0.001). Children as riders are exposed to higher risks of accident and longer life with disability. It also explains how these children behaviourally take up adult roles and seek adult risk taking attitudes. The implications of child motorcycle riders upon children themselves and on the society are discussed for a greater discourse on road safety motorcycle riding policy and to highlight the behavioural and non-behavioural factors that are associated with traffic accidents.  相似文献   
10.
The present study examined whether school-age children show risk compensation and engage in greater risk taking when wearing safety gear compared to when not doing so when running an obstacle course containing hazards that could lead to physical injury. Because sensation seeking has been shown to influence risk taking, this child attribute was also assessed and related to risk compensation. Children 7-12 years of age were videotaped navigating the obstacle course twice, once wearing safety gear and once without safety gear, with reverse directions used to minimize possible practice effects. The time it took the child to run through the course and the number of reckless behaviors (e.g., falls, trips, bumping into things) that the child made while running the course were compared for the gear and no-gear conditions. Results indicated that children went more quickly and behaved more recklessly when wearing safety gear than when not wearing gear, providing evidence of risk compensation. Moreover, those high in sensation seeking showed greater risk compensation compared with other children. Implications for childhood injury prevention are discussed.  相似文献   
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