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国内外海参自然资源、养殖状况及存在问题
引用本文:张春云,王印庚,荣小军,孙惠玲,董树刚.国内外海参自然资源、养殖状况及存在问题[J].海洋水产研究,2004,25(3):89-97.
作者姓名:张春云  王印庚  荣小军  孙惠玲  董树刚
作者单位:1. 中国海洋大学海洋生命学院,青岛,266003
2. 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所,青岛,266071
基金项目:青岛市科技发展计划项目 (0 2 1 kchhh 44),山东省科技计划项目 (0 2 2 1 1 0 1 1 4 )共同资助
摘    要:海参含有丰富的蛋白质和黏多糖,营养和药用价值极高。自20世纪80年代以来,海参的几种重要商业品种的苗种培育在日本、中国和印度等国家相继获得成功。近年来,海参消费需求的逐步扩大导致世界范围内海参自然资源的过度开发和种群数量的急剧下降,海参的人工养殖随之兴起。目前,国内海参养殖规模不断扩大,养殖方式多种多样。然而养殖的过速发展和不规范运作也造成了如生态环境恶化、病害等诸多问题。本文综述了国内外海参的自然资源、种群分布,以及目前海参主要养殖品种的苗种培育和增养殖技术要点,就海参养殖中存在的主要问题进行了探讨并提出了相应的对策。

关 键 词:海参  自然资源  养殖  病害
文章编号:1000-7075(2004)03-0089-09
修稿时间:2004年2月27日

Natural resources culture and problems of sea cucumber worldwide
ZHANG Chun-yun,WANG Yin-geng,RONG Xiao-jun,SUN Hui-ling,DONG Shu-gang.Natural resources culture and problems of sea cucumber worldwide[J].Marine Fisheries Research,2004,25(3):89-97.
Authors:ZHANG Chun-yun  WANG Yin-geng  RONG Xiao-jun  SUN Hui-ling  DONG Shu-gang
Affiliation:ZHANG Chun-yun 1 WANG Yin-geng 2* RONG Xiao-jun 1 SUN Hui-ling 2 DONG Shu-gang 1
Abstract:Sea cucumbers possess high nutritional and medical value as they are abundant in proteins and mucopolysaccharide. The increasing demand of consumption market led to over-exploitation and reduction on the natural resources of those commercial sea cucumber species worldwide. Thus, sea cucumber farming has developed rapidly in recent years. Since 1980's, seed rearing techniques of several commercial species have been successively established in Japan, China, India and elsewhere. The culture areas expanded rapidly where varied rearing methods have been developed in these countries. However,the rapid development and poor operation resulted in many problems such as the deterioration of ecological environment ,the occurrence of diseases, et al. This article reviewed the natural stocks of the important holothurian species, their distribution, and the update techniques on seed rearing, sea ranching and commercial farming.The existing problems in the industry are also discussed and the countermeasures are proposed accordingly.
Keywords:Sea cucumber    Resources    Aquaculture    Disease
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