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The groundwater divide is a key feature of river basins and significantly influenced by subsurface hydrological processes. For an unconfined aquifer between two parallel rivers or ditches, it has long been defined as the top of the water table based on the Dupuit–Forchheimer approximation. However, the exact groundwater divide is subject to the interface between two local flow systems transporting groundwater to rivers from the infiltration recharge. This study contributes a new analytical model for two-dimensional groundwater flow between rivers of different water levels. The flownet is delineated in the model to identify groundwater flow systems and the exact groundwater divide. Formulas with two dimensionless parameters are derived to determine the distributed hydraulic head, the top of the water table and the groundwater divide. The locations of the groundwater divide and the top of the water table are not the same. The distance between them in horizontal can reach up to 8.9% of the distance between rivers. Numerical verifications indicate that simplifications in the analytical model do not significantly cause misestimates in the location of the groundwater divide. In contrast, the Dupuit–Forchheimer approximation yields an incorrect water table shape. The new analytical model is applied to investigate groundwater divides in the Loess Plateau, China, with a Monte Carlo simulation process taking into account the uncertainties in the parameters.  相似文献   
Offshore pipelines are critical infrastructures and any possible damage may have devastating financial and environmental consequences. Earthquake-related geohazards (such as strong ground motion, active seismic faults, submarine landslides and debris flows) consist crucial threats that an offshore pipeline has to overcome. The main aim of the current study is to examine analytically a seabed-laid offshore pipeline subjected to a lateral kinematic distress due to a submarine landslide or a debris flow. Extra emphasis is given on the impact of pipe-soil interaction on the pipe response, by the realistic representation of the soil resistance via a tri-linear model. Firstly, the proposed analytical model is validated with a numerical model utilizing the finite-element method. Subsequently, various combinations of soil parameters and loading conditions that affect the examined problem are investigated with realistic input data taken from the offshore section of the high-pressure natural-gas pipeline TAP (Trans Adriatic Pipeline) in the Adriatic Sea. Finally, useful conclusions are drawn regarding the applicability and the efficiency of the proposed approach.  相似文献   
宋周莺  祝巧玲 《地理科学进展》2020,39(11):1785-1797
中巴经济走廊是“一带一路”6大经济走廊之一,而贸易畅通是“一带一路”建设的核心环节。研究中巴贸易关系演变及其影响因素、分析其贸易潜力,对推进“一带一路”建设具有重要的示范作用。论文从中巴贸易发展态势、商品结构、空间格局等方面揭示中巴贸易关系,运用随机前沿引力模型分析中巴贸易关系的主要影响因素、并探析其发展潜力,以期为推进中巴经济走廊建设提供科学支撑。研究发现:① 中巴贸易发展迅速,中对巴贸易顺差持续扩大;中国主要出口机械及电气设备等资本密集型产品,主要进口纺织原料及纺织制品等初级产品和劳动密集型产品。② 中国各省份与巴基斯坦的贸易合作存在明显的空间差异,东部沿海省份与巴贸易联系较紧密,西部各省份除新疆外与巴基斯坦贸易额均较小。③ 中国多数省份对巴贸易商品结构发生显著变动,其中,新疆、山东等进出口商品结构多元的省份的变动相对较小。④ 中国各省份的经济发展水平和市场规模对中巴贸易拉动较强;海运距离对中巴贸易规模有显著的负向影响;领土接壤为中巴组织边境贸易提供了良好条件;铁路和水运口岸的建设对中巴贸易具有积极影响。⑤ 中国各省份与巴基斯坦均有较大贸易潜力,内蒙古、云南、广西、陕西等省份的合作潜力更明显。  相似文献   
Forests in the Southeastern United States are predicted to experience future changes in seasonal patterns of precipitation inputs as well as more variable precipitation events. These climate change‐induced alterations could increase drought and lower soil water availability. Drought could alter rooting patterns and increase the importance of deep roots that access subsurface water resources. To address plant response to drought in both deep rooting and soil water utilization as well as soil drainage, we utilize a throughfall reduction experiment in a loblolly pine plantation of the Southeastern United States to calibrate and validate a hydrological model. The model was accurately calibrated against field measured soil moisture data under ambient rainfall and validated using 30% throughfall reduction data. Using this model, we then tested these scenarios: (a) evenly reduced precipitation; (b) less precipitation in summer, more in winter; (c) same total amount of precipitation with less frequent but heavier storms; and (d) shallower rooting depth under the above 3 scenarios. When less precipitation was received, drainage decreased proportionally much faster than evapotranspiration implying plants will acquire water first to the detriment of drainage. When precipitation was reduced by more than 30%, plants relied on stored soil water to satisfy evapotranspiration suggesting 30% may be a threshold that if sustained over the long term would deplete plant available soil water. Under the third scenario, evapotranspiration and drainage decreased, whereas surface run‐off increased. Changes in root biomass measured before and 4 years after the throughfall reduction experiment were not detected among treatments. Model simulations, however, indicated gains in evapotranspiration with deeper roots under evenly reduced precipitation and seasonal precipitation redistribution scenarios but not when precipitation frequency was adjusted. Deep soil and deep rooting can provide an important buffer capacity when precipitation alone cannot satisfy the evapotranspirational demand of forests. How this buffering capacity will persist in the face of changing precipitation inputs, however, will depend less on seasonal redistribution than on the magnitude of reductions and changes in rainfall frequency.  相似文献   
为满足复杂地形景区对三维地图导览的需求,构建更为清晰的三维地图模型,提供良好的三维导览地图设计方案显得尤为重要。为了更好地与卫星影像进行贴合,DEM数据的采样密度要与卫星影像的分辨率一致。本文通过对比当下常用的四种空间插值方法的适用范围与运用特点,设置相关阈值及权重,直观比较了四种插值方法产生的插值结果,选择更适合复杂景区DEM插值的插值方法并对其进行精度提升,以此得到符合精度要求的DEM数据。最后利用相应地区的卫星影像进行地图投影及影像贴图,两种数据结合构建复杂景区的三维地图模型,给游客带来更为精确直观的定位信息和空间要素信息。  相似文献   
利用2015年8月份对长江口及其邻近海域表层沉积物的监测数据,基于主成分分析/绝对主成分分数(PCA/APCS)受体模型定量解析了重金属元素镉(Cd)的可能来源,并结合地统计学插值了Cd的源贡献量的空间分布状况,结果表明沉积物中镉污染主要存在3个可能来源,源头及贡献率分别为工业污染(18.8%)、陆地径流输入(66.0%)、生物活动等自然因素(13.6%),并且各个源头贡献量具有不同的空间分布状况,其中工业污染的高值区主要集中在靠近陆地区域,陆地径流输入的分布呈现由近岸向外海逐减降低的特征,生物活动等自然因素的高值区主要集中在远离陆地的外海区域。  相似文献   
弧形海岸裂流的数值模拟研究   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
弧形海岸波浪产生的裂流严重危害人类活动,但是目前对其特征缺乏充分认识。本文对Haller物理模型实验和三亚大东海的数值模拟表明FUNWAVE模式具有较好的裂流模拟能力。基于该模式进行了多种弧形海岸条件的裂流数值模拟,给出裂流的一些特征:(1)海岸弯曲度增大,裂流增强;(2)海岸坡度对裂流有比较大的影响,太陡或太平缓的海岸不利于形成裂流;(3)海岸尺寸减小,裂流减弱;(4)波高和波周期增大,裂流增强,但是对于某些海岸而言,0.4m波高可能就存在危害比较大的裂流。  相似文献   
A FORTRAN program, consistent with the commercially available finite element (FE) code ABAQUS, is developed based on a three-dimensional (3D) linear elastic brittle damage constitutive model with two damage criteria. To consider the heterogeneity of rock, the developed FORTRAN program is used to set the stiffness and strength properties of each element of the FE model following a Weibull distribution function. The reliability of the program is assessed against available experimental results for granite cylindrical specimens with a throughgoing, flat and inclined fissure. The calibration procedure of the material parameters is explained in detail, and it is shown that the compressive to tensile strength ratio can have a substantial influence on the failure response of the specimens. Numerical simulations are conducted for models with different levels of heterogeneity. The results show a smaller load bearing capacity for models with less homogeneity, representing gradual coalescence of fully damaged elements forming throughout the models during loading. The maximum load bearing capacity is studied for various combinations of inclination angles of two centrally aligned, throughgoing and flat fissures of equal length embedded in cylindrical models under uniaxial and multiaxial loading conditions. The key role of the compressive to tensile strength ratio is highlighted by repeating certain simulations with a lower compressive to tensile strength ratio. It is proven that the peak loads of the rock models with sufficiently small compressive to tensile strength ratios containing two throughgoing fissures of equal length are similar, provided that the minimum inclination angles of the models are the same. The results are presented and discussed with respect to the existing experimental findings in the literature, suggesting that the numerical model applied in this study can provide useful insight into the failure behaviour of rock-like materials.  相似文献   
随着海洋生态系统模型的发展,生态变量增多,众多生物过程参数量值的确定成为制约生态环境模拟的瓶颈问题,生态系统结构区域性要求模型中的生态参数具有区域差异。为探究不同海区的关键参数及参数敏感度的空间差异,本研究在渤、黄海建立了ROMS-CoSiNE物理–生物耦合的高分辨率生态系统模型,并对13种生态参数的敏感度空间分布进行分析。结果表明:南黄海中部与渤海及近岸海域的敏感度差异较大。渤海敏感度最大的参数为决定光合速率的浮游植物P-I曲线初始斜率,其次为浮游动物捕食半饱和常数和浮游动物最大捕食率。而南黄海中部敏感度最大的参数为浮游动物最大捕食率,其次为浮游植物死亡率和浮游植物P-I曲线初始斜率。结合敏感度分布及浮游植物生物量收支得出,渤海水体透明度较南黄海偏低、浮游植物生长光限制较强,是引起浮游植物P-I曲线初始斜率敏感度在渤海高于黄海的主要原因。浮游动物最大捕食率及浮游植物死亡率的敏感度空间差异,受渤、黄海浮游植物生物量差异的影响,与生态系统中的高度非线性特征有关。  相似文献   
This paper studies dynamic crack propagation by employing the distinct lattice spring model (DLSM) and 3‐dimensional (3D) printing technique. A damage‐plasticity model was developed and implemented in a 2D DLSM. Applicability of the damage‐plasticity DLSM was verified against analytical elastic solutions and experimental results for crack propagation. As a physical analogy, dynamic fracturing tests were conducted on 3D printed specimens using the split Hopkinson pressure bar. The dynamic stress intensity factors were recorded, and crack paths were captured by a high‐speed camera. A parametric study was conducted to find the influences of the parameters on cracking behaviors, including initial and peak fracture toughness, crack speed, and crack patterns. Finally, selection of parameters for the damage‐plasticity model was determined through the comparison of numerical predictions and the experimentally observed cracking features.  相似文献   
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