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1.
利用最新发布的CALIPSO产品,构建了2007-2017年中国沙尘气溶胶的三维分布,并结合HYSPLIT-4模式和再分析数据,探讨了沙尘的三维输送过程。结果表明:中国的沙尘排放源区主要是塔克拉玛干沙漠和巴丹吉林沙漠,沙尘气溶胶出现频率分别为60%和35%。塔克拉玛干沙漠排放的沙尘主要(50%~70%)停留在源地0~6 000 m高度,少部分向东输送至甘肃和内蒙古;巴丹吉林沙漠排放的沙尘则主要向东输送。中国沙尘排放量在春季最大,向东输送最强;夏季,东亚夏季风限制了沙尘向东输送;秋季,沙尘排放减弱,输送强度和夏季相当;沙尘排放量在冬季最小,输送最弱。夏季,沙尘在输送过程中可被抬升至高度5 000 m以上,春季次之,秋、冬季的沙尘主要在低层大气输送。沙尘在向东输送的过程中被抬升并和当地人为污染物混合变为污染性沙尘,华北地区污染性沙尘出现频率高达30%;输送到海洋的沙尘也会与洋面上(0~3 000 m高度)的海盐气溶胶混合,出现频率约为10%。  相似文献   
2.
Multi-conjugate adaptive optics(MCAO),consisting of several deformable mirrors(DMs),can significantly increase the adaptive optics(AO)correction field of view.Current MCAO can be realized by either star-oriented or layer-oriented approaches.For solar AO,ground-layer adaptive optics(GLAO)can be viewed as an extreme case of layer-oriented MCAO in which the DM is conjugated to the ground,while solar tomography adaptive optics(TAO)that we proposed recently can be viewed as star-oriented MCAO with only one DM.Solar GLAO and TAO use the same hardware as conventional solar AO,and therefore it will be important to see which method can deliver better performance.In this article,we compare the performance of solar GLAO and TAO by using end-to-end numerical simulation software.Numerical simulations of TAO and GLAO with different numbers of guide stars are conducted.Our results show that TAO and GLAO produce the same performance if the DM is conjugated to the ground,but TAO can only generate better performance when the DM is conjugated to the best height.This result has important application in existing one-DM solar AO systems.  相似文献   
3.
The geodynamic mechanism of the late Early Cretaceous magmatic flare‐up in the collisional zone between the Lhasa and Qiangtang terranes in Tibet is controversial because of a scarcity of robust evidence. To address this problem, we report geochronological, geochemical and Hf isotopic data for the newly discovered Gufeng gabbros from the Duolong Cu–Au mineral district of the western Bangong–Nujiang Suture Zone (BNSZ). The gabbro samples, dated at 126.3 ± 1.8 Ma, show geochemical similarities to typical ocean island basalt (OIB) and have positive εHf(t) values of +3.3 to +6.9. The gabbros were generated by decompression melting of deep upwelling asthenosphere. This event is best explained by slab break‐off and the resultant development of a slab window beneath central Tibet.  相似文献   
4.
Glaciers and snow cover are important constituents of the surface of the Tibetan Plateau. The responses of these phenomena to global environmental changes are sensitive, rapid and intensive due to the high altitudes and arid cold climate of the Tibetan Plateau. Based on multisource remote sensing data, including Landsat images, MOD10A2 snow product, ICESat, Cryosat-2 altimetry data and long-term ground climate observations, we analysed the dynamic changes of glaciers, snow melting and lake in the Paiku Co basin using extraction methods for glaciers and lake, the degree-day model and the ice and lake volume method. The interaction among the climate, ice-snow and the hydrological elements in Paiku Co is revealed. From 2000 to 2018, the basin tended to be drier, and rainfall decreased at a rate of −3.07 mm/a. The seasonal temperature difference in the basin increased, the maximum temperature increased at a rate of 0.02°C/a and the minimum temperature decreased at a rate of −0.06°C/a, which accelerated the melting from glaciers and snow at rates of 0.55 × 107 m3/a and 0.29 × 107 m3/a, respectively. The rate of contribution to the lake from rainfall, snow and glacier melted water was 55.6, 27.7 and 16.7%, respectively. In the past 18 years, the warmer and drier climate has caused the lake to shrink. The water level of the lake continued to decline at a rate of −0.02 m/a, and the lake water volume decreased by 4.85 × 108 m3 at a rate of −0.27 × 108 m3/a from 2000 to 2018. This evaluation is important for understanding how the snow and ice melting in the central Himalayas affect the regional water cycle.  相似文献   
5.
The volume FeO and TiO_2 abundances(FTAs) of lunar regolith can be more important for understanding the geological evolution of the Moon compared to the optical and gamma-ray results. In this paper, the volume FTAs are retrieved with microwave sounder(CELMS) data from the Chang'E-2 satellite using the back propagation neural network(BPNN) method. Firstly, a three-layered BPNN network with five-dimensional input is constructed by taking nonlinearity into account. Then, the brightness temperature(TB) and surface slope are set as the inputs and the volume FTAs are set as the outputs of the BPNN network.Thereafter, the BPNN network is trained with the corresponding parameters collected from Apollo, Luna,and Surveyor missions. Finally, the volume FTAs are retrieved with the trained BPNN network using the four-channel TBderived from the CELMS data and the surface slope estimated from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter(LOLA) data. The rationality of the retrieved FTAs is verified by comparing with the Clementine UV-VIS results and Lunar Prospector(LP) GRS results. The retrieved volume FTAs enable us to re-evaluate the geological features of the lunar surface. Several important results are as follows. Firstly, very-low-Ti(1.5 wt.%) basalts are the most spatially abundant, and the surfaces with TiO_2 5 wt.% constitute less than 10% of the maria. Also, two linear relationships occur between the FeO abundance(FA) and the TiO_2 abundance before and after the threshold, 16 wt.% for FA. Secondly, a new perspective on mare volcanism is derived with the volume FTAs in several important mare basins, although this conclusion should be verified with more sources of data. Thirdly, FTAs in the lunar regolith change with depth to the uppermost surface,and the change is complex over the lunar surface. Finally, the distribution of volume FTAs hints that the highlands crust is probably homogeneous, at least in terms of the microwave thermophysical parameters.  相似文献   
6.
基于毛乌素沙区10个气象站1961-2016年观测资料,应用Mann-Kendall方法和t检验法对各气象站年降水量进行了突变检验,借助小波分析讨论了各气象站年降水量的周期特征,根据降水量等值线划分结果对整个研究区分区分析了年、季、月和日尺度上的降水变化特征,并在两个时段上分析了季节性降水的差异。结果表明:毛乌素沙区年降水量空间特征差异明显,东部亚区呈上升趋势,中西部亚区呈下降趋势,但变化趋势不显著且无突变发生;降水年内分配不均,干湿季分明,降水集中在5-9月,夏秋季降水占全年降水比重大,季、月和日尺度降水量存在梯度递减变化;年降水量的年际变化过程存在多重时间尺度的自相似结构;近26年的冬春季降水增加显著,但降水波动幅度小于前30年。  相似文献   
7.
Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a popular data mining technique, and it has been widely applied in astronomical tasks, especially in stellar spectra classification. Since SVM doesn’t take the data distribution into consideration, and therefore, its classification efficiencies can’t be greatly improved. Meanwhile, SVM ignores the internal information of the training dataset, such as the within-class structure and between-class structure. In view of this, we propose a new classification algorithm-SVM based on Within-Class Scatter and Between-Class Scatter (WBS-SVM) in this paper. WBS-SVM tries to find an optimal hyperplane to separate two classes. The difference is that it incorporates minimum within-class scatter and maximum between-class scatter in Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) into SVM. These two scatters represent the distributions of the training dataset, and the optimization of WBS-SVM ensures the samples in the same class are as close as possible and the samples in different classes are as far as possible. Experiments on the K-, F-, G-type stellar spectra from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Data Release 8 show that our proposed WBS-SVM can greatly improve the classification accuracies.  相似文献   
8.
风和径流量对长江口缺氧影响的数值模拟   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
受自然和人类活动的影响,海洋缺氧现象日益严重,威胁着海洋生态环境,海洋缺氧问题已经引起了人们的广泛关注。本文应用区域海洋模式并耦合生态模式,对东海的生态系统进行了数值模拟和分析研究。与观测数据比较显示,该模型能较好地模拟长江口外生态变量的分布趋势。另外本文通过设置不同敏感性实验,探讨风和径流量对长江口底层缺氧现象的影响,结果分析表明,风和径流量对长江口外缺氧区的形成有显著的影响。径流量变化虽然对长江口外缺氧区的季节变化影响并不显著,但是对缺氧区域面积却存在显著的影响。径流量增加,水体层化增强,表层叶绿素浓度增加,最终导致缺氧区域范围扩展;径流量减小,水体层化减弱,表层叶绿素浓度减小,缺氧区域范围缩小。风向和风速的改变不仅影响长江口外缺氧区的季节变化,还影响缺氧区域面积。  相似文献   
9.
Water quality is often highly variable both in space and time, which poses challenges for modelling the more extreme concentrations. This study developed an alternative approach to predicting water quality quantiles at individual locations. We focused on river water quality data that were collected over 25 years, at 102 catchments across the State of Victoria, Australia. We analysed and modelled spatial patterns of the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentiles of the concentrations of sediments, nutrients and salt, with six common constituents: total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP), filterable reactive phosphorus (FRP), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), nitrate-nitrite (NOx), and electrical conductivity (EC). To predict the spatial variation of each quantile for each constituent, we developed statistical regression models and exhaustively searched through 50 catchment characteristics to identify the best set of predictors for that quantile. The models predict the spatial variation in individual quantiles of TSS, TKN and EC well (66%–96% spatial variation explained), while those for TP, FRP and NOx have lower performance (37%–73% spatial variation explained). The most common factors that influence the spatial variations of the different constituents and quantiles are: annual temperature, percentage of cropping land area in catchment and channel slope. The statistical models developed can be used to predict how low- and high-concentration quantiles change with landscape characteristics, and thus provide a useful tool for catchment managers to inform planning and policy making with changing climate and land use conditions.  相似文献   
10.
虾青素是一种具有强抗氧化活性的类胡萝卜素,而雨生红球藻是天然虾青素的主要来源。本文以雨生红球藻(Haematococcus pluvialis)为材料,研究了植物激素玉米素和水杨酸对雨生红球藻的生长、虾青素含量及相关基因表达的影响。分别添加5种浓度的玉米素或水杨酸,结果发现0.05mg/L玉米素或25mg/L水杨酸处理5d后雨生红球藻虾青素积累最多。该浓度玉米素或水杨酸可显著提高光胁迫下藻细胞密度,最高分别达到3.4×10~5cell/mL和3.0×10~5cell/mL;同时玉米素与水杨酸组中虾青素含量显著上升,分别为1.7%和1.6%,比对照组分别增加29.2%和25.6%。玉米素缓解了高光逆境条件下光合作用基因——Rubisco大亚基(rbcL)及其活化酶(rca)、碳酸酐酶(ca)的下调表达,但对虾青素合成途径β-胡萝卜素酮化酶基因(bkt)的表达量没有显著影响;而水杨酸则相反,在胁迫后期不能缓解光合作用相关基因的下调表达,但可使bkt基因显著上调,最高可达对照组的2.5倍。本研究首次比较了玉米素和水杨酸对雨生红球藻生长和虾青素积累的影响,发现玉米素比水杨酸具有更好的促进雨生红球藻中虾青素积累的效果。  相似文献   
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