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中国地面月气候资料质量控制方法的研究
引用本文:任芝花,熊安元,邹凤玲.中国地面月气候资料质量控制方法的研究[J].应用气象学报,2007,18(4):516-523.
作者姓名:任芝花  熊安元  邹凤玲
作者单位:国家气象信息中心,北京,100081
基金项目:中国气象局资助项目;中国气象局科技攻关项目
摘    要:由于气象台站信息变化以及观测规范的频繁变动,使中国地面气象资料序列比较复杂。该文在分析中国地面历史气象资料中可能存在的非均一性和错误性、研究月气候资料序列存在的可能分布状态的基础上,提出了中国地面月气候资料质量控制技术。通过分析认为,中国地面月气候资料的质量控制,应把下列3种方式结合起来,进行综合质量检测:①把12个月的气候资料序列联合起来,进行长时间连续性错误资料检测;②把时间序列变换为接近正态分布的均一序列后,进行时间域和空间域的奇异值检测;③对检测出的连续性可疑资料和单个数据点的奇异值进行人工分析辨别。利用上述质量控制方法,对1971—2000年中国地面700多基准基本站月统计气候资料进行了质量检查,最后介绍了质量检查结果。

关 键 词:质量控制  地面月气候资料  中国
收稿时间:2006-03-27
修稿时间:2006-03-272007-01-19

The Quality Control of Surface Monthly Climate Data in China
Ren Zhihu,Xiong Anyuan,Zou Fengling.The Quality Control of Surface Monthly Climate Data in China[J].Quarterly Journal of Applied Meteorology,2007,18(4):516-523.
Authors:Ren Zhihu  Xiong Anyuan  Zou Fengling
Affiliation:National Meteorological Information Center, Beijing, 100081
Abstract:It is generally agreed that outliers detection as well as outliers identification is of primary importance to quality control(QC) of observational data.Using some traditional quality techniques such as high-low extreme check,confidence limit control,internal consistency check etc,China historical surface meteorological data has been examined over and over,but there is a wide variety of erroneous values that are not been detected yet.If the continuity and distribution state of a data series and the outliers existence are not been understood well beforehand,some special erroneous values cannot be detected.The surface climate data series become more complex and inhomogeneous as a result of station moves,changes in the environment surrounding a station,and frequent changes in observational criterion in China.Therefore,the distribution of the data series from a great number of stations in China is not a normal distribution.Though discontinuities and inhomogeneities in time series are not of the field of QC,they have an effect upon traditional QC result.On the other hand,there would be problems in the sequential monthly climate data even the data among years as a result of measurement instrument errors,that of instrument calibration,a gradual shift in the physical characteristics of the instrument apparatus,or misoperation by observers etc if the above problems could not be solved in time.Perhaps the kind of data are not of great difference to the normal data,but they have certain impact on climate analysis.After analyzing the inhomogeneities,distribution state of the series and erroneous data in existence in China historical surface climate data,the QC method of surface monthly climate data in China has been developed,which is a breakthrough to traditional QC techniques of monthly climate data.It turns out that the quality control of China surface monthly climate data should include the following three steps: The check of continuous erroneous data after integrating the 12 monthly time series into a new individual series;the temporal check and spatial check of outliers after time series converted from likely inhomogeneous distribution to homogeneous one;manual advanced identification of continuous suspicious data and outliers. With the above QC method,about 250000 surface monthly climate data of base stations in China from 1971 to 2000 is examined.The climate data contains more than 10 monthly variables: Surface air temperature,surface air relative humidity,wind speed,skin surface temperature,eight layers of soil temperature,sunshine duration,pan evaporation,frozen earth depth and snow depth etc.136 erroneous monthly climate data referring to various variables are detected in total. The causes of erroneous monthly data according with original data such as hourly data is the following: Use other station data or monthly data to substitute true data;miss-recording such as enlarging or reducing 10 times in original data;the original data should not be equal to 0,but the record data is 0;the measurement instrument is malfunctioning.
Keywords:quality control  surface monthly climate data  China
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