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印度-亚洲碰撞大地构造
引用本文:许志琴,杨经绥,李海兵,嵇少丞,张泽明,刘焰.印度-亚洲碰撞大地构造[J].地质学报,2011,85(1):1-33.
作者姓名:许志琴  杨经绥  李海兵  嵇少丞  张泽明  刘焰
作者单位:中国地质科学院地质研究所
基金项目:创新研究群体科学基金, 中国地质调查局项目
摘    要:印度-亚洲碰撞是新生代地球上最为壮观的重大地质事件。碰撞及碰撞以来,青藏高原的广大地域发生了与碰撞前截然不同的变形,地貌、环境及其深部结构都发生了深刻地变化。根据青藏高原形成、周缘造山带崛起以及大量物质侧向逃逸的基本格局,作者从大陆动力学视角出发,将“印度-亚洲碰撞大地构造” 与“前碰撞大地构造”区别开来进行研究,将印度亚洲碰撞的大地构造单元划分为:青藏中央高原、冈底斯-喜马拉雅主俯冲/碰撞造山带、青藏高原周缘挤压转换造山带和侧向挤出地体群等, 其中青藏中央高原即青藏腹地,“冈底斯-喜马拉雅主俯冲/碰撞造山带”包括冈底斯“安第斯山型”俯冲造山带和“喜马拉雅山型”主碰撞造山带,青藏高原周缘挤压转换造山带包括北缘“西昆仑-阿尔金-祁连”挤压转换造山带、东缘“龙门山-锦屏山” 挤压转换造山带、东南缘“中缅”伊洛瓦底挤压转换造山带和西南缘“印-巴-阿”阿莱曼挤压转换造山带,侧向挤出地体群包括青藏高原东构造结东南部以大型走滑断裂: 鲜水河-小江、哀牢山-红河、澜沧江、嘉黎高黎贡、那邦和三盖断裂为边界的南松甘、兰坪、保山、腾冲等挤出地体群; 以及青藏高原西构造结两侧的“甜水海“、“兴都库什”、“ 喀布尔”和“阿富汗”侧向挤出地体群。本文探讨了上述各构造单元形成的主要制约因素, 例如:楔形印度小板块与亚洲大板块的碰撞以及印度大陆东西拐角的构造作用,主碰撞和斜向碰撞的影响,大型走滑与侧向挤出地体的形成关系,挤压与走滑并重的挤压转换机制对整个青藏高原和周缘造山带形成的制约,碰撞大地构造单元的特性以及与前碰撞大地构造的区别和叠置或改造的关系等等。最后,本文还基于青藏高原地幔结构探讨印度-亚洲碰撞大地构造学及青藏高原大陆动力学的意义。

关 键 词:印度亚洲碰撞  大地构造  主碰撞  斜向碰撞
收稿时间:1/5/2011 12:00:00 AM
修稿时间:1/5/2011 12:00:00 AM

On the Tectonics of the India-Asia Collision
Zhiqin Xu,Jingsui Yang,Haibing Li,Shaocheng Ji,Zeming Zhang,Yan Liu.On the Tectonics of the India-Asia Collision[J].Acta Geologica Sinica,2011,85(1):1-33.
Authors:Zhiqin Xu  Jingsui Yang  Haibing Li  Shaocheng Ji  Zeming Zhang  Yan Liu
Affiliation:Institute of Geology, CAGS
Abstract:The collision between India and Asia is the most spectacular tectonic event on Earth during the Cenozoic, resulting in the uplift of the Tibetan plateau and surrounding orogenic belts as well as a lot of material escaping toward the east and southeast. In this paper, the Tibetan plateau was divided into the following tectonic units: (1) the central Tibetan plateau including east Kunlun, Bayanhar-Songpanganzi, Qiangtang, and north Lhasa areas; (2) the Gangdese-Himalayan main subduction-collision belts consisting of Gangdese Andes-type subduction belt and the Himalayan-type collision belt; (3) surrounding transpressional orogenic belts characterized by thrusting and strike-slip faulting which include Western Kunlun-Altyn-Qilian transpressional belts in the north, Longmenshan-Jinpinshan belt in the east, Sino-Burma belt in the southeast, India-Pakistan-Afghanistan belt in the southwest; (4) lateral extrusion terrains including South Songpan, Lanping, Baoshan and Tenchong terrains bounded by large-scale strike-slip faults: Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault, Ailaoshan-Red river fault, Lancangjiang fault, Jiali-Gaoligong fault, Nabang fault and Sagaing fault around the eastern Himalayan Syntaxis, as well as Tianshuihai, Xindukushi, Kabuer and Afghanistan extrusion terrains around the western Himalayan Syntaxis. Various constraints for the India / Asia collision tectonics have been discussed, such as: collision between a small wedge of Indian plate and the larger Asian Plate, the roles of the Eastern and Western corners of the Indian plate, the impact of normal and oblique collisions, large strike-slip faulting related to lateral extrusion, transpressional mechanism with both strike-slip faulting and thrusting kinematic features related to uplift of surrounding orogenic belts, and mantle structures beneath the Tibetan Plateau.
Keywords:On the tectonics of the India-Asia collision
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