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"公共利益"是什么?--社会功利主义的定义及其宪法上的局限性
引用本文:张千帆."公共利益"是什么?--社会功利主义的定义及其宪法上的局限性[J].法学论坛,2005,20(1):28-31.
作者姓名:张千帆
作者单位:北京大学法学院,北京,100087
摘    要:本文从方法论的个体主义出发,论证社会功利主义为"公共利益"提供了最恰当的定义.按照这种定义,"公共利益"就是全部私人利益之和,而法律的基本目标就是个人利益总和的最大化.尽管如此,"公共利益"仍然很难准确计算,因而在很多情况下--例如土地征收和城市拆迁,政府计划是否符合"公共利益"是通过制度决定的.由于代议制民主和功利主义具有天然联系,议会一般被认为是"公共利益"的最适当决定者.最后,议会代表的多数人利益可能和少数人权利发生冲突.在这种情况下,议会权力及其所定义的"公共利益"必须通过宪政机制而受到限制,以避免侵犯宪法为所有人保障的基本权利.

关 键 词:公共利益  功利主义  民主  法治  宪政
文章编号:1009-8003(2005)01-0028-04
修稿时间:2004年11月30

What is“ublic Interest”--The Utilitarian Definition and Its Constitutional Limitations
ZHANG Qian-fan.What is“ublic Interest”--The Utilitarian Definition and Its Constitutional Limitations[J].Legal Forum,2005,20(1):28-31.
Authors:ZHANG Qian-fan
Abstract:This thesis apply a proper definition about Public Interest through the demonstration of utilitarian from the individualism of methodology. According to this definition, public interest is a sum total of all personal interest , the basic aim of law is a sum total maximum of all personal interests . Because public interest still could not be summed accurately through the way of above-mentioned ,so in many cases, such as land levy ,urban remove and government plan are all decided by system that judge whether they fit for public interest. Because the relation is intimate between representative system and utilitarian ,congress is considered as a proper policymaker of public interest in general, however, the interest of the vast majority that is represented by congress could conflict with the rights of the minority .Under this circumstances ,congress power and public interest must be limited by constitutionalism system, in order to avoid infringing the basic rights of all citizens that is ensured by constitution.
Keywords:public interest  utilitarian  democracy  rule by law  constitutionalism  
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