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1.
The quantitative risk assessment (QRA) is one of the explicit requirements under the European Union (EU) Directive (2004/54/EC). As part of this, it is essential to be able to estimate the number of fatalities in different accident scenarios. In this paper, a tangible methodology is developed to estimate the number of fatalities caused by toxic gases due to fire in road tunnels by incorporating traffic flow and the spread of fire in tunnels. First, a deterministic queuing model is proposed to calculate the number of people at risk, by taking into account tunnel geometry, traffic flow patterns, and incident response plans for road tunnels. Second, the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) is used to obtain the temperature and concentrations of CO, CO2, and O2. By taking advantage of the additivity of the fractional effective dose (FED) method, fatality rates for different locations in given time periods can be estimated. An illustrative case study is carried out to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed methodology.  相似文献
2.
以带有微孔阵列(直径为150μm)的印制电路板(PCB)为微型腔镶块,将此微镶块应用于超声粉末模压成型工艺(micro-UPM),按照设定的成型工艺参数成型出超高分子量聚乙烯(UHMWPE)微圆柱阵列塑件.差示扫描量热分析和纳米压痕实验数据表明,UHMWPE粉末未预热时所成型出的微圆柱阵列塑件整体上由初生态和熔化再结晶两相结构组成,当UHMWPE粉末预热温度由室温28℃逐渐升高到85℃时,所成型出的微圆柱阵列塑件整体上由初生态和熔化再结晶两相结构变成为单相熔化再结晶结构.X射线衍射实验数据表明,micro-UPM微塑件基体部分的结晶度大于微圆柱部分的结晶度,且(110)晶面的晶粒尺寸大于(200)晶面的晶粒尺寸.  相似文献
3.
The oxidation behavior of a cast polycrystalline Co-base superalloy was studied at temperatures from 900 to 1050℃ and analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that a cast Co-base superalloy follows the subparabolic oxidation kinetics at 900 and 1000℃, which are controlled by the growth of the inner Cr-rich layer, and that after oxidation at 1050℃ for 200 h, it almost exhibits the linear oxidation kinetics possible due to the volatility of Cr-rich oxide. A mixed scale forms on the alloy after prolonged oxidation. The oxide scale formed at 900 and 1000℃ is composed of an outer layer of spinel and an inner continuous Cr-rich layer and at I050℃ is composed of a very discontinuous Cr-rich layer.  相似文献
4.
Also representing: CCAST (World Laboratory), Beijing 100080, People's Republic of China and the Structure Research Laboratory, University of Sciences and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, People's Republic of China.  相似文献
5.
本文基于红外透射及喇曼谱分析的结果提出了一个 a-C:H/a-Se 复合膜的 a-C∶H 层非平衡晶化凝聚模型,并做了计算机模拟研究。模拟得到的图形是具有良好的无标度性的链环状分形。其分维值为1.37±0.02,此结果得到了实验的肯定。这对非晶膜的结构及晶化机理的研究均富有价值。  相似文献
6.
Infrared and Raman analyses on the configuration of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-CH) thin films on monocrystalline Ge and Si substrates have been carried out. Models of the short range order and of the non-equilibrium crystallization aggregation of the films are proposed based on the analysis results and previous works by Smith [1, 2], Lu and Wang [3] and Witten and Sander [4]. The computer simulated aggregates, according to the models, are fractals with the dimension 1.81±0.06. The films have been crystallized by laser illustration quenching. The fractal dimension of the experimentally obtained aggregates is in agreement with the simulation result.  相似文献
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Fiber‐shaped stretchable strain sensors with small testing areas can be directly woven into textiles. This paves the way for the design of integrated wearable devices capable of obtaining real‐time mechanical feedback for various applications. However, for a simple fiber that undergoes uniform strain distribution during deformation, it is still a big challenge to obtain high sensitivity. Herein, a new strategy, surface strain redistribution, is reported to significantly enhance the sensitivity of fiber‐shaped stretchable strain sensors. A new method of transient thermal curing is used to achieve the large‐scale fabrication of modified elastic microfibers with intrinsic microbeads. The proposed strategy is independent of the active materials utilized and can be universally applied for various active materials. The strategy used here will shift the vision of the sensitivity enhancement method from the active materials design to the mechanical design of the elastic substrate, and the proposed strategy can also be applied to nonfiber‐shaped stretchable strain sensors.  相似文献
10.
Memristive synapses based on resistive switching are promising electronic devices that emulate the synaptic plasticity in neural systems. Short‐term plasticity (STP), reflecting a temporal strengthening of the synaptic connection, allows artificial synapses to perform critical computational functions, such as fast response and information filtering. To mediate this fundamental property in memristive electronic devices, the regulation of the dynamic resistive change is necessary for an artificial synapse. Here, it is demonstrated that the orientation of mesopores in the dielectric silica layer can be used to modulate the STP of an artificial memristive synapse. The dielectric silica layer with vertical mesopores can facilitate the formation of a conductive pathway, which underlies a lower set voltage (≈1.0 V) compared to these with parallel mesopores (≈1.2 V) and dense amorphous silica (≈2.0 V). Also, the artificial memristive synapses with vertical mesopores exhibit the fastest current increase by successive voltage pulses. Finally, oriented silica mesopores are designed for varying the relaxation time of memory, and thus the successful mediation of STP is achieved. The implementation of mesoporous orientation provides a new perspective for engineering artificial synapses with multilevel learning and forgetting capability, which is essential for neuromorphic computing.  相似文献
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