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This study aims to develop a subway operational incident delay model using the parametric accelerated time failure (AFT) approach. Six parametric AFT models including the log-logistic, lognormal and Weibull models, with fixed and random parameters are built based on the Hong Kong subway operation incident data from 2005 to 2012, respectively. In addition, the Weibull model with gamma heterogeneity is also considered to compare the model performance. The goodness-of-fit test results show that the log-logistic AFT model with random parameters is most suitable for estimating the subway incident delay. First, the results show that a longer subway operation incident delay is highly correlated with the following factors: power cable failure, signal cable failure, turnout communication disruption and crashes involving a casualty. Vehicle failure makes the least impact on the increment of subway operation incident delay. According to these results, several possible measures, such as the use of short-distance and wireless communication technology (e.g., Wifi and Zigbee) are suggested to shorten the delay caused by subway operation incidents. Finally, the temporal transferability test results show that the developed log-logistic AFT model with random parameters is stable over time.  相似文献
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This study evaluates rear-end crash risk associated with work zone operations for four different vehicle-following patterns: car–car, car–truck, truck–car and truck–truck. The deceleration rate to avoid the crash (DRAC) is adopted to measure work zone rear-end crash risk. Results show that the car–truck following pattern has the largest rear-end crash risk, followed by truck–truck, truck–car and car–car patterns. This implies that it is more likely for a car which is following a truck to be involved in a rear-end crash accident. The statistical test results further confirm that rear-end crash risk is statistically different between any two of the four patterns. We therefore develop a rear-end crash risk model for each vehicle-following pattern in order to examine the relationship between rear-end crash risk and its influencing factors, including lane position, the heavy vehicle percentage, lane traffic flow and work intensity which can be characterized by the number of lane reductions, the number of workers and the amount of equipment at the work zone site. The model results show that, for each pattern, there will be a greater rear-end crash risk in the following situations: (i) heavy work intensity; (ii) the lane adjacent to work zone; (iii) a higher proportion of heavy vehicles and (iv) greater traffic flow. However, the effects of these factors on rear-end crash risk are found to vary according to the vehicle-following patterns. Compared with the car–car pattern, lane position has less effect on rear-end crash risk in the car–truck pattern. The effect of work intensity on rear-end crash risk is also reduced in the truck–car pattern.  相似文献
3.
According to The Handbook of Tunnel Fire Safety, over 90% (55 out of 61 cases) of fires in road tunnels are caused by vehicle crashes (especially rear-end crashes). It is thus important to develop a proper methodology that is able to estimate the rear-end vehicle crash frequency in road tunnels. In this paper, we first analyze the time to collision (TTC) data collected from two road tunnels of Singapore and conclude that Inverse Gaussian distribution is the best-fitted distribution to the TTC data. An Inverse Gaussian regression model is hence used to establish the relationship between the TTC and its contributing factors. We then proceed to introduce a new concept of exposure to traffic conflicts as the mean sojourn time in a given time period that vehicles are exposed to dangerous scenarios, namely, the TTC is lower than a predetermined threshold value. We further establish the relationship between the proposed exposure to traffic conflicts and crash count by using negative binomial regression models. Based on the limited data samples used in this study, the negative binomial regression models perform well although a further study using more data is needed.  相似文献
4.
The quantitative risk assessment (QRA) is one of the explicit requirements under the European Union (EU) Directive (2004/54/EC). As part of this, it is essential to be able to estimate the number of fatalities in different accident scenarios. In this paper, a tangible methodology is developed to estimate the number of fatalities caused by toxic gases due to fire in road tunnels by incorporating traffic flow and the spread of fire in tunnels. First, a deterministic queuing model is proposed to calculate the number of people at risk, by taking into account tunnel geometry, traffic flow patterns, and incident response plans for road tunnels. Second, the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) is used to obtain the temperature and concentrations of CO, CO2, and O2. By taking advantage of the additivity of the fractional effective dose (FED) method, fatality rates for different locations in given time periods can be estimated. An illustrative case study is carried out to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed methodology.  相似文献
5.
This study proposes a methodology to solve the integrated problems of selection and scheduling of the exclusive bus lane. The selection problem intends to determine which roads (links) should have a lane reserved for buses while the scheduling problem intends to find the time period of the application. It is formulated as a bi-objective optimization model that aims to minimize the total travel time of non-bus traffic and buses simultaneously. The proposed model formulation is solved by the hybrid non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm with Paramics. The results show that the proposed methodology is workable. Sets of Pareto solutions are obtained indicating that a trade-off between buses and non-bus traffic for the improvement of the bus transit system is necessary when the exclusive bus lane is applied. This allows the engineer to choose the best solutions that could balance the performance of both modes in a multimode transport system environment to achieve a sustainable transport system.  相似文献
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