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1.
Design of a novel LED collimating element based on freeform surface   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
A novel element for collimating LED light is designed based on non-imaging optics. It is composed of a refraction lens and a reflector. The upper surface of the lens is freeform and calculated by geometrical optics and iterative process. The lens makes the rays in the range of 0°-45°from the optical axis collimated. The rays in the range of 45°-90°from the optical axis are collimated by the reflector. The inner surface of the reflector is parabolic with its focus located in the LED chip. The designed element is applicable to LED source of any emitting type. For a certain application, the simulation results of the designed element in Tracepro show that it has a very compact structure and good collimating performance. Just investigating the loss in the lens surfaces, this element has high light output efficiency of nearly 99%. Most lighting area radii are no more than 20 mm when the illuminated plane is 5 m away from the LED source.  相似文献
2.
Junction network is a special type of roadwork pattern that scatters and distributes around the specific zone of metropolitan and in that contains different grade and functional roads of arterial road, urban freeway and expressway. Intelligent control is new development where the control problem is to find the combination of control measures that result for the best road performance and control effectiveness. The problems of multi-objective coordinated metering and evaluation for local ramp is considered. This paper discusses the optimal coordination of mainline and ramp, a modified ramp latency model is posed using the method of queuing theory, and a ramp control with better mechanism compare to artificial neural network using radical based function-support vector machine algorithm is designed. With in-situ traffic flow data of Beijing ring and radial freeway during high-density period, three known and the designed novel methodologies are compared, the intensive simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed approach, particularly at the aspect of minimize reduplicated waiting time for junction network. using these methodologies demonstrates the comparative control efficiency and accuracy.  相似文献
3.
Anisotropy is ubiquitous in solids and enhanced in low-dimensional materials. In response to an electromagnetic wave, anisotropic absorptive and refractive properties result in dichroic and birefringent optical phenomena both in the linear and nonlinear optics regimes. Such material properties have led to a diverse array of useful polarization components in the visible and near-infrared, but mature technology is non-existent in the terahertz (THz). Here, we review several novel types of anisotropic material responses observed in the THz frequency range, including both linear and circular anisotropy, which have long-term implications for the development of THz polarization optics. We start with the extreme linear anisotropy of macroscopically aligned carbon nanotubes, arising from their intrinsically anisotropic dynamic conductivity. Magnetically induced anisotropy will then be reviewed, including the giant Faraday effects observed in semiconductors, semimetals, and two-dimensional electron systems.  相似文献
4.
For conventional subcarrier pairing schemes in cooperative orthogonal frequency division multiplexing amplify and forward multi-relay networks, to avoid interference, each subcarrier pair (SP) is assigned to only one relay. Over a specific subcarrier, the destination receives signals transmitted from only one relay. In our subcarrier pairing scheme, we assign each SP to all the relays. Thus, over a specific subcarrier, the destination receives signals transmitted from all the relays. Since it is assumed that there exists the direct link from the source to the destination, we assume that the source also transmits signals during the second time slot for the direct transmission mode. We propose an enhanced joint subcarrier pairing and power allocation optimization scheme which maximizes the transmission rate subject to total network power constraint. The problem is simplified and solved by using dual method. It is shown from simulation results that our proposed scheme outperforms the other schemes.  相似文献
5.
Impulse radio is a low-complexity ultra-wideband system which is suitable for highly dispersive multipath channel. In this paper, we propose a random correlation-based receiver for impulse radio communications. The proposed receiver correlates the received pilot symbols with the randomly generated base functions according to channel statistics and forms the detection template by combining several base functions which have larger correlation coefficients with the pilot symbols. The proposed receiver demodulates the received signal by employing a symbol rate sampling. Computer simulation results have shown that the proposed receiver outperforms the conventional correlator-based receiver, compressive sensing correlator-based receiver, weighted energy detector and autocorrelation receiver.  相似文献
6.
For multiple-input multiple-output cognitive radio systems, we propose an optimal single transmit and receive antenna selection scheme which maximizes the signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio. Considering peak interference power constraint, peak transmit power constraint, and interference from primary transmitter to cognitive receiver, we theoretically derive the exact system outage probability. It is shown that the theoretical results match simulation results.  相似文献
7.
In this paper, considering the interferences from primary transmitter to secondary receiver and from secondary transmitter to primary receiver, we derive the upper and lower bounds of outage probability for underlay cognitive opportunistic multi-relay networks. Theoretical and simulation results show the upper and lower bounds converge to the exact outage probability at high interference-to-noise (INR) region. Because the interference from primary transmitter to secondary receiver is considered, an outage floor at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) occurs when INR increases proportionally with SNR.  相似文献
8.
Inkjet printing (IJP) technology, adapted from home and office printing, has proven to be an essential research tool and industrial manufacturing technique in a wide range of printed electronic technologies, including optoelectronics. Its primary advantage over other deposition methods is the low‐cost and maskless on‐demand patterning, which offers unmatched freedom‐of‐design. Additional benefits include the efficient use of materials, contactless high‐resolution deposition, and scalability, enabling rapid translation of learning from small‐scale, laboratory‐based research into large‐scale industrial roll‐to‐roll manufacturing. In the development of organic solar cells (OSCs), IJP has enabled the printing of many of the multiple functional layers which comprise the complete cell as part of an additive printing scheme. Although IJP is only recently employed in perovskite solar cell (PeSC) fabrication, it is already showing great promise and is anticipated to find broader application with this class of materials. As OSCs and PeSCs share many common functional materials and device architectures, this review presents a progress report on the IJP of OSCs and PeSCs in order to facilitate knowledge transfer between the two technologies, with critical analyses of the challenges and opportunities also presented.  相似文献
9.
As a layered p‐type semiconductor with a wide bandgap of 2.7 eV, GeSe2 can compensate for the rarity of p‐type semiconductors, which are desired for the production of high‐integration logic circuits with low power consumption. Herein, ultrathin 2D single crystals of β‐GeSe2 are produced using van der Waals epitaxy and halide assistance; each crystalline flake is ≈7 nm thick and shaped as a rhombus. The optical and electrical properties of the flakes are studied systematically, and the temperature‐dependent Raman spectra of the flakes reveal that the intensity of the Raman peaks decrease with increasing temperature. Low‐temperature electrical measurements suggest that the variable‐range hopping model is best for describing the electrical transport at 20–180 K; meanwhile, optical‐phonon‐assisted hopping can account for the transport behavior at 180–460 K. Impressively, the angle‐resolved polarized Raman measurements indicate strong in‐plane anisotropy of the rhombic GeSe2 flake under a parallel polarization configuration, which may result from the low symmetry of the monoclinic crystal structure of GeSe2. Furthermore, a photodetector based on a rhombic GeSe2 flake is constructed and shown to exhibit a high responsivity of 2.5 A W?1 and a fast response of ≈0.2 s.  相似文献
10.
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