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1.
Berger  Terry A.  Berger  Blair K. 《Chromatographia》2013,76(11):591-601

The natural pigments in paprika were rapidly and efficiently separated by ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography. The separation of both un-saponified and saponified mixtures of paprika oleoresin were optimized, with run times of 10.6 min. Three different C18 columns, a cyano, silica and diol column, all 3 × 100 mm, with 1.8 μm particles were compared. The best separation for the un-saponified sample was found with an SB-C18 column, while the saponified samples were best separated on a bare silica, RX-Sil column. A SB-CN column allowed near optimum separation of both the unsaponified, and saponified samples, with similar run times. The best mobile phase was carbon dioxide (CO2) modified with isopropyl alcohol (IPA), with a composition gradient. Fingerprints of several commercial pepper products indicated that one appeared to be colored with artificial dyes, while the color of a chili powder may have been enhanced with a paprika extract. Spectra, using CO2 with IPA as modifier, produced a single maximum at 453 nm, which appears to represent up to a 30 nm solvatochromic shift from the maxima in most organic solvents. Acetonitrile (ACN) as modifier produced spectra with two maxima and a similar solvatochromic shift. These results appear to be the first on saponified paprika oleoresin samples using SFC. It is also the first detailed report on the separation of un-saponified samples. The results are up to six times faster than comparable results by HPLC. It appears that SFC is a viable, superior alternative to HPLC for the analysis of this important commercial product, without using ACN, or chlorinated solvents.

  相似文献   
2.
The highly functionalized tetrahydropyridine 4 was obtained in an indium(III) chloride catalyzed multi‐component reaction from benzaldehyde, 4‐methoxyaniline, and ethyl acetoacetate (=ethyl 3‐oxobutanoate) in the presence of [1,1′‐binaphthalene]‐2,2′‐diol (binol). It was found that binol played a beneficial role in this reaction, allowing a substantial decrease of the amount of indium salt. Also, simple organic Brønsted acids may serve as effective organocatalysts in this process.  相似文献   
3.
Geometry and energetics of low energy conformers of sodium dihydrogen triacetate (SDHTA) and its anion are studied using density functional theory (DFT) at the Becke, Lee‐Yang‐Parr hybrid functional (BLYP) and Becke, three‐parameter, Lee‐Yang‐Parr hybrid functional (B3LYP) levels. For both cases, two structures of comparable energy are found, which have different symmetry with respect to the two hydrogen bonds (HBs). DFT‐based Born–Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations are performed for SDHTA, which show that both structures are visited at room temperature conditions. The trajectory analysis further reveals that the two HBs behave anticooperative, that is, on average elongation of one HB is accompanied by a compression of the other one. This is in accord with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experimental studies for a similar counter ion–dihydrogen triacetate complex. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
4.
Synthesis of 2‐(o‐nitrophenyl)‐6‐arylthiazolo[3,2‐b]‐[1,2,4]‐triazoles 4 and its isomer 3‐(o‐nitrophenyl)‐5‐arylthiazolo[2,3‐c]‐[1,2,4]‐triazoles 6 has been achieved starting from the appropriate 1‐(o‐nitrobenzoyl)‐3‐thiosemicarbazide 1 . Compound 1 on condensation with α‐haloketones gives 2‐(o‐nitrobenzoyl)hydrazino‐4‐arylthiazole hydrobromide 5 , which, on cyclization with POCl3, affords thiazolo[3,2‐b]‐[1,2,4]‐triazoles 6 and not the isomeric thiazolo[3,2‐b]‐[1,2,4]‐triazoles 4 . This has been established by an unequivocal synthesis of 4 through polyphosphoric acid cyclization of 5‐aroylmethylmercapto‐3‐o‐nitrophenyl‐[1,2,4]‐triazole 3 . Compound 3 was synthesized by condensation of α‐haloketones with 5‐mercapto‐3‐(o‐nitrophenyl)‐[1,2,4]‐triazole 2 , obtained cyclization of 2‐(o‐nitrobenzoyl)hydrazinecarbothioamide 1 with NaOH. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of some of the compounds have also been evaluated.  相似文献   
5.
A straightforward and general approach for the stereoselective synthesis of fused pyrrolo[1,2‐a] indoles frameworks from>intramolecular 1,3‐dipolar cycloaddition using N‐alkylated Baylis–Hillman derivatives is presented. It was found that the cycloaddition proceeded efficiently under microwave irradiation in solvent‐free condition to afford highly stereoselective cycloadducts in good yield.  相似文献   
6.
A novel series of chromen‐2‐ones containing pyrazole, isoxazole, oxazine, and thiazine substitutions have been synthesized by reacting 3‐[3‐(4‐chloro‐phenyl)‐acryloyl]‐chromen‐2‐one and 3‐[3‐(3‐methoxy‐phenyl)‐acryloyl]‐chromen‐2‐one with various cyclizing agents such as hydrazine, phenylhydrazine, urea, and thiourea. The structures of all the synthesized compounds were confirmed by the use of IR, 1H‐NMR, mass spectroscopy, and elemental analysis data. All the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti‐inflammatory activity at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight in carrageenan‐induced rat paw edema model. The entire series of the compounds exhibited moderate to good anti‐inflammatory activity, with the percentage inhibition of edema formation ranging from 39.99 to 63.15 against the reference drug ibuprofen (100 mg/kg) that showed 78.96% inhibition at the third hour. Compounds 3a , 3c , and 3d showed good inhibitory activity, whereas compounds 3b , 3e , 3f , and 3j showed moderate inhibitory activity at the third hour.  相似文献   
7.
A Cannizzaro‐type reaction of tetrahydro‐5(1H)‐quinolinones with para substituted benzaldehydes in the presence of a base formed the corresponding quinoline and aryl methanol rather than arylidene derivatives because of the oxidation of tetrahydroquinoline and reduction of benzaldehydes as a result of unprecedented hydride transfer from tetrahydroquinoline to arylaldehydes. The reaction proceeds best with the participation of substituents with +M effect in substrate molecule.  相似文献   
8.
The thermal [4 + 2] cycloaddition reaction of 7‐substituted 4‐styrylcoumarins with N‐phenylmaleimide and tetracyanoethylene in nitrobenzene under reflux conditions rapidly gives 3,4‐annulated coumarins as the Diels–Alder adducts. The position of the surviving double bond was determined on the basis of NMR and supported by energies of the possible structures. The effects of the 7‐substituent and the solvent on the reaction were studied.  相似文献   
9.
We report herein a facile, rapid, and environmentally friendly synthesis of nitropyrazoles in good yields using silica‐bismuth nitrate and silica‐sulfuric acid‐bismuth nitrate at room temperature for the first time. The relatively non‐toxic nature, ease of handling, easy availability, and low cost make the present procedure attractive for the nitration of a wide variety of diazoles in the drug and pharmaceutical industries.  相似文献   
10.
Solar ultraviolet‐B radiation (UVB) is essential for epidermal vitamin D production. We aimed to quantitate the relationship between personal solar UV exposure and serum 25hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration. Blood was collected for 25(OH)D analysis in 207 South Australian adults aged 27–61 years. At the time of blood collection, each participant completed a questionnaire, which included a calendar for recall of sun exposure in the preceding 16 weeks. We examined the association between solar UV exposure and serum 25(OH)D graphically from smoothed scatter plots, and modeled it using multiple linear regression, with age, sex and body mass index as covariates. Estimated erythemal solar UV exposure in the 6 weeks before blood collection best predicted serum 25(OH)D concentrations. Serum 25(OH)D rose with increasing personal solar UV exposure to a maximum of about 89 nmol L?1 at an estimated mean weekly solar erythemal UV exposure of about 1230 mJ cm?2. The maximum was the same after accounting for clothing coverage and was reached at an estimated whole body equivalent exposure to ambient UV of ca 700 mJ cm?2. These results suggest that an average maximum serum 25(OH)D of ca 89 nmol L?1 is achieved from sun exposure in a healthy Australian adult population.  相似文献   
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