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1.
王欲知  吴平  周艳 《中国激光》1996,23(9):791-795
提出了金属蒸气激光器中金属原子在激光器隔离头中运动的理论模式──无规行走模式.从实验上验证了该模式.在此理论模式的基础上.设计出一种新的抗金属蒸气污染的隔离头.其原理是.在金属蒸气原子无规行走过程中.用多片高凝结系数的金属片来吸附碰撞在它上面的金属蒸气原子.从而实现对窗口的保护作用.还用MonteCanlo数值模拟方法.模拟了金属原子的运动,显示了新型隔离头的抗污作用.它的抗污能力比普通的隔离头有明显的提高.  相似文献   
2.
Although chemical sensing is far simpler than vision or hearing, navigation in a chemical diffusion field is still not well understood. Biological studies have already demonstrated the use of various search methods (e.g., chemotaxis and biased random walk), but robotics research could provide new ways to investigate principles of olfactory-based search skills (Webb, 2000; Grasso, 2001). In previous studies on odour source localisation, we have tested three biologically inspired search strategies: chemotaxis, biased random walk, and a combination of these methods (Kadar and Virk, 1998; Lytridis et al., 2001). The main objective of the present paper is to demonstrate how simulation and robot experiments could be used conjointly to systematically study these search strategies. Specifically, simulation studies are used to calibrate and test our three strategies in concentric diffusion fields with various noise levels. An experiment with a mobile robot was also conducted to assess these strategies in a real diffusion field. The results of this experiment are similar to those of simulation studies showing that chemotaxis is a more efficient but less robust strategy than biased random walk. Overall, the combined strategy seems to be superior to chemotaxis and biased random walk in both simulation and robot experiment. Christodoulos Lytridis received a BEng degree in electronic and computer engineering, MSc degree in mobile robotics and PhD in Olfactory based navigation for mobile robots from the University of Portsmouth. His research interests include odor-based cooperative navigation, biologically inspired navigational methods, and odor sensors for mobile robots. He is an associate member of the Institution of Electrical Engineering. Endre E. Kadar is a senior lecturer in psychology at the University of Portsmouth. He began his academic career as a theoretical mathematician at the Institute of Hydraulic Planning, working in applied modelling on a variety of problems in engineering. Then he moved to the University of Connecticut to work as a teaching and research assistant and received his PhD in experimental psychology in 1996. His PhD research project has dealt with the problem of ecological foundation of perceptual control of locomotion. After moving to Portsmouth in 1996, his theoretical work provided the basis for a productive collaboration with engineers in robotics. Also, these novel field theoretical ideas have resulted in radically new approaches to exploratory learning and visual control of high speed driving. Application of these approaches has been supported by several ESRC grants. Gurvinder S. Virk graduated with first class honours in electrical and electronic engineering (University of Manchester) and received a PhD in control theory (Imperial College, London). He has followed an academic career working at Sheffield City Polytechnic, Universities of Southampton, Sheffield and Bradford, Portsmouth and is now professor of control and robotics at the University of Leeds. His main research interests include robotics, building and energy management systems, and application of advanced model-based control systems. He has held several grants from national and European sources, as well as industry (the total value of £11M). He has more then 200 publications, including four books. He coordinated the European thematic network CLAWAR and has been involved in developing robots for exploring volcanic environments, inspection of highway bridges and dams, and biomedical applications. He is chairman of the ISO TC184/SC2 Advisory Group on Standards for mobile service robots. He is Fellow of the Institution of Engineering and Technology, Fellow of the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, Fellow of the Institution of Applied Mathematics and Its Applications. He is Charted Engineer and a Charted Mathematician. He has been awarded the Freedom of the City of London for his work in promoting Information Technology.  相似文献   
3.
The Probability Distribution of Slot Selection (PDoSS) of IEEE 802.11 DCF is extremely uneven, which makes the packet collision probability very high. In this paper, we propose a novel RWBO+BEB backoff algorithm for 802.11 DCF to make the PDoSS even and thus decrease the packet collision probability. A Markov model is built for analyzing RWBO+BEB's PDoSS and saturation throughput. The model's correctness is validated by simulation. The performance of RWBO+BEB is also evaluated by simulation in terms of PDoSS, saturation throughput, packet collision probability and packet delay. The simulation results indicate that RWBO+BEB can decrease the packet collision probability to a large extent, utilize the channel more efficiently, and make the packet delay jitter much lower comparing to 802.11 DCF. Moreover, we analyze the relation of saturation throughput and packet collision probability to walking probability (pd) and contention windows (w), respectively. The analysis indicates that RWBO+BEB has a remarkable feature: its saturation throughput keeps high, and packet collision probability keeps very low (which under 0.1) in a large range of pd and w, this allows us to configure pd and w more flexibly. Supported by the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (NCET 2005), the Research Project of Chongqing Municipal Education Commission of China (KJ050503), the Research Grants by the Science & Tech. Commission of Chongqing (8817) and the National Science Foundation of China (90304004). Li Yun was born in 1974. He is currently a Ph.D. candidate in University of Electronic Science and Technology of China. His research interests are in MAC protocol improvement and QoS in wireless ad hoc networks. Long Ke-Ping was born in 1968. He received his Ph.D. from University of Electronic Science and Technology of China in 1999. He is a professor Ph.D. supervisor in special research Centre for Optical Internet and Wireless Information Networks (COIWIN) at ChongQing University of Posts and Telecommunications. He was an IEEE member. He has over 120 research publications and 4 patents application. His research interests include: Optical Burst switching, modeling of optical networking, IP QoS mechanisms (Diffserv and Intserv, MPLS), WDM/SDH/ATM networks survivability, TCP/IP enhancements in wireless networks, and Mobile IP. Zhao Wei-liang was born in 1962 and received his Ph.D. degree from University of Electronic Science and Technology of China in 2001. He is a professor and a post-doctoral fellow in Beijing University of Posts & Telecommunications of China. His current interest lies in wireless communications.  相似文献   
4.
Solid state qubits promise the great advantage of being naturally scalable to large quantum computer architectures, but they also possess the significant disadvantage of being intrinsically exposed to many sources of noise in the macroscopic solid-state environment. With suitably chosen systems such as superconductors, many of sources of noise can be suppressed. However, imprecision in nanofabrication will inevitably induce defects and disorder, such as charged impurities in the device material or substrate. Such defects generically produce telegraph noise and can hence be modelled as bistable fluctuators. We demonstrate the possibility of the active suppression of such telegraph noise by bang–bang control through an exhaustive study of a qubit coupled to a single bistable fluctuator. We use a stochastic Schrödinger equation, which is solved both numerically and analytically. The resulting dynamics can be visualized as diffusion of a spin vector on the Bloch sphere. We find that bang–bang control suppresses the effect of a bistable fluctuator by a factor roughly equalling the ratio of the bang–bang period and the typical fluctuator period. Therefore, we show the bang–bang protocol works essentially as a high pass filter on the spectrum of such telegraph noise sources. This suggests how the influence of 1/f-noise ubiquitous to the solid state world could be reduced, as it is typically generated by an ensemble of bistable fluctuators. Finally, we develop random walk models that estimate the level of noise suppression resulting from imperfect bang–bang operations, such as those that cannot be treated as -function impulses and those that have phase and axis errors. PACS: 03.65.Yz, 03.67.Lx, 05.40.-a  相似文献   
5.
Combinatorial Mobile IP, a new mobility management scheme for Mobile IP, is proposed and analyzed. We present how to adopt mobility management schemes on cellular networks and adapt them in Mobile IP without disrupting the nature of the Internet. We apply widely used mobility management schemes such as hierarchical architecture and paging in cellular networks to Mobile IP. We restrict paging to the area that has to be paged using local registrations. In this way, we show that the total signaling costs of Combinatorial Mobile IP are reduced compared to other micro-mobility protocols such as Mobile IP Regional Registration and P-MIP. Random walk on a connected graph is used to analyze the performance of Combinatorial Mobile IP.  相似文献   
6.
In this work we introduce two practical and interesting models of ad-hoc mobile networks: (a) hierarchical ad-hoc networks, comprised of dense subnetworks of mobile users interconnected by a very fast yet limited backbone infrastructure, (b) highly changing ad-hoc networks, where the deployment area changes in a highly dynamic way and is unknown to the protocol. In such networks, we study the problem of basic communication, i.e., sending messages from a sender node to a receiver node. For highly changing networks, we investigate an efficient communication protocol exploiting the coordinated motion of a small part of an ad-hoc mobile network (the runners support) to achieve fast communication. This protocol instead of using a fixed sized support for the whole duration of the protocol, employs a support of some initial (small) size which adapts (given some time which can be made fast enough) to the actual levels of traffic and the (unknown and possibly rapidly changing) network area, by changing its size in order to converge to an optimal size, thus satisfying certain Quality of Service criteria. Using random walks theory, we show that such an adaptive approach is, for this class of ad-hoc mobile networks, significantly more efficient than a simple non-adaptive implementation of the basic runners support idea, introduced in [9,10]. For hierarchical ad-hoc networks, we establish communication by using a runners support in each lower level of the hierarchy (i.e., in each dense subnetwork), while the fast backbone provides interconnections at the upper level (i.e., between the various subnetworks). We analyze the time efficiency of this hierarchical approach. This analysis indicates that the hierarchical implementation of the support approach significantly outperforms a simple implementation of it in hierarchical ad-hoc networks. Finally, we discuss a possible combination of the two approaches above (the hierarchical and the adaptive ones) that can be useful in ad-hoc networks that are both hierarchical and highly changing. Indeed, in such cases the hierarchical nature of these networks further supports the possibility of adaptation.  相似文献   
7.
Predictions of financial time series often show a characteristic one step shift relative to the original data as in a random walk. This has been the cause for opposing views whether such time series do contain information that can be extracted for predictions, or are simply random walks. In this case study, we show that NNs that are capable of extracting weak low frequency periodic signals buried in a strong high frequency signal, consistently predict the next value in the series to be the current value, as in a random walk, when used for one-step-ahead predictions of the detrended S&P 500 time series. In particular for the Time Delay Feed Forward Networks and Elman Networks of various configurations, our study supports the view of the detrended S&P 500 being a random walk series. This is consistent with the long standing hypothesis that some financial time series are random walk series.  相似文献   
8.
In this note, we discuss a general definition of quantum random walks on graphs and illustrate with a simple graph the possibility of very different behavior between a classical random walk and its quantum analog. In this graph, propagation between a particular pair of nodes is exponentially faster in the quantum case. PACS: 03.67.Hk  相似文献   
9.
This letter treats the quantum random walk on the line determined by a 2 × 2 unitary matrix U. A combinatorial expression for the mth moment of the quantum random walk is presented by using 4 matrices, P, Q, R and S given by U. The dependence of the mth moment on U and initial qubit state is clarified. A new type of limit theorems for the quantum walk is given. Furthermore necessary and sufficient conditions for symmetry of distribution for the quantum walk is presented. Our results show that the behavior of quantum random walk is striking different from that of the classical ramdom walk. PACS: 03.67.Lx; 05.40.Fb; 02.50.Cw  相似文献   
10.
Gilles R. Ducharme 《TEST》2001,10(2):271-290
In this paper, tests of goodness-of-fit for the inverse Gaussian distribution are developed. The distribution involves a shape parameter and, because of this, some test approaches lead to inconsistent strategies. A consistent test is proposed and its properties investigated. A table of critical points is provided and both the level and the power of the test are explored by simulation. It is seen that the test is more powerful than most of its competitors. The framework is widened to cover satellite distributions of the inverse Gaussian and some types of censored data. An example concludes the paper.  相似文献   
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