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为了使多目标粒子群算法中种群粒子能够快速地收敛于怕累托最优边界,针对标准多目标粒子群算法中缺乏粒子评价标准以及种群个体历史最优值位置和全局最优值位置选择问题,提出了一种基于环境选择和配对选择策略的多目标粒子群算法.该算法在每次迭代时,采用SPEA2中的环境选择和配对选择策略及适应度值计算方法,以此来提高种群粒子之间的信息交换力度,减少标准多目标粒子群算法中大量的随机性,使种群粒子能够更快速地收敛于怕累托最优边界.经典测试函数的仿真实验结果表明,在标准多目标粒子群算法中运用SPEA2的环境选择、配对选择策略和适应度值计算方法,能够使种群粒子更快速地收敛于帕累托最优边界,验证了算法改进的可行性和有效性.  相似文献   
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This study aimed to identify factors that influence the development of biofilm by Listeria monocytogenes strains and to determine the extent to which biofilm production protects against quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) disinfectant challenge. A total of 95 L. monocytogenes strains were studied and biofilm production was assessed as a function of incubation temperature, media pH, strain origin, serotype, and environmental persistence status. Attachment and biofilm development (inferred by the level of attached biomass) were measured in vitro using a colourimetric 96-well microtitre plate method in nutritive media (Brain-Heart Infusion). Increased biofilm production correlated with increasing temperature and the most acidic, or most alkaline, growth conditions tested. Clinical and environmental (food factory) strains were observed to increase biofilm production at higher and lower incubation temperatures respectively, independent of their rate of planktonic growth. Serotype 1/2a strains produced significantly more biofilm. Biofilm maturity, rather than strain, was correlated with resistance to QAC. Carbohydrate containing exopolymeric material could not be detected in the biofilm of representative strains, and no correlation between strains recovered as persistent food factory contaminants and biofilm production was identified. Although limited to in vitro inference based on the assay system used, our results suggest that environmental conditions determine the level of biofilm production by L. monocytogenes strains, independent of the rate of planktonic growth, and that this may manifest from selection pressures to which a given strain grows optimally.  相似文献   
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This article uses a genetically informed design to evaluate whether (1) the well-documented association between marital support and depressive symptoms is accounted for by genetic and/or shared environmental selection, (2) gender differences are found after controlling for selection effects, and (3) parenthood moderates any nonshared environmental relation between depressive symptoms and marital support. We used a sample of 1,566 pairs of same-sexed, married twins from the Australian Twin Registry to evaluate our hypotheses that (1) the predicted effect of marital support on depressive symptoms is not fully an artifact of selection, (2) the etiological sources accounting for this effect differ between husbands and wives, and (3) parenthood status moderates the effect of marital support on depressive symptoms adjusting for selection effects. The results support the first hypotheses. However, after controlling for selection, the effect of marital support on depressive symptoms was not significantly different for husbands and wives. Parenthood moderated the effect of marital support, such that after controlling for selection, marital support is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms for full-time parents than nonfull-time parents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)  相似文献   
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Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediational role of social environmental selection on alcohol use in cross-sectional samples of 447 students from a rural state university and 421 students from an urban private university. Results showed that male gender, White ethnicity, and sensation seeking were uniquely associated with greater alcohol use. Mediational analyses indicated that socioenvironmental factors (i.e., Greek involvement, friends' approval of drinking/getting drunk) were positively associated with alcohol use and significantly accounted for parts of the effects of ethnicity and sensation seeking, but not gender, on alcohol use. Results suggest that White students and those high on sensation seeking may drink more heavily in college, in part because they select social environments in which alcohol use is encouraged. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)  相似文献   
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